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Working plan and work packages overview



To tackle the applied and fundamental research aspects of vertical greening for liveable cities, the five objectives of this project are:

1. build on a co-creation process with stakeholders (local communities) and affecting VG operations in the private, public and industrial sectors to identify their requirements, supply chains and profit and non-profit oriented business-models and governance structures of VG in urban space,

2. combining the stakeholder analysis with an analysis of building stocks, architectural types, ages and functions of private, public and commercial buildings, new construction styles and techniques as well as urban green infrastructure and urban green space planning issues for VG for different building and urban space types and stakeholder needs will be progressed and their ecosystem services quantified. The civil engineering, architectural, landscape architectural and urban design co-creating approach will ensure a novel design and adaption of VG at the building scale with a high degree of acceptance.

3. Nature-based solutions will be developed and tested to i) quantify biomass production (bioenergy) for different living walls and green facades using different plant species, ii) facilitate the integration of VG into rainwater and greywater management of buildings and quarters and iii) optimize energy saving capabilities of different designs for a set of different typical building facades.

4. Automated maintenance and harvest robotics need to be designed for city-scale implementations of VG combining expertise on maintenance and harvest requirements from the co-creation process, and architectural mechanical engineering and sensor technology aspects.

5. Towards implementing VG 2.0 for sustainable cities, adaptable VG implementation strategies and nature-based solutions for the food-water-energy nexus of VG need to be scaled from the building to the city scale, including a thorough assessment of potential impacts of VG concerning green infrastructure quality, production of food, goods and bio-energy, water management and energy saving for different structure types and climatic conditions and assessment of automation strategies based on energy balances derived from life cycle analyses.


The five project objectives are approached in four work packages (WP2 - WP5) shown above focusing on the building scale and one city-scale oriented work package (WP6) strictly focusing temperate climates and the three European partner cities. The synthesis including the discussion of transferability to other climates will be carried out in WP7.

In the WPs, we will use a wide variety of methods ranging from fundamental research (planning, governance, design theory, experiments, modelling) to more applied science on business models, irrigation systems and simulations to innovation in architectural designing and mechanical engineering. However, the project bases on stakeholder feedback which assures a high acceptance and realisation chance of the developed solutions. The advancements in design, technology, management, etc. which are reached in WP 2 - WP6 are iteratively presented and discussed in the two stakeholder workshops moderated by experienced experts, forming the co-creation strategy.

Thereby, the first stakeholder workshop contributes to goal definitions and adjustments of research priorities, while the second one will give valuable feedback on achievements and possible improvements. The maximum impact of VG on the food water and energy nexus in cities will then be assessed in vertical greening scenarios based on the real acceptance and considering constraints and limitations in the above-mentioned systems (e.g. space, water scarcity, maintenance costs) which allow policy makers to decide if and how VG will be implemented in the transformation of cities to more sustainability.

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